Session: 632. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Therapy: Epidemiology, Prognosis, and Real Life Care
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Diseases, CML, Myeloid Malignancies
Methods: This retrospective study comprised a series of 236 patients in chronic-phase CML who discontinued TKI treatment outside of clinical trials between April 2009 and February 2018 in 33 Spanish institutions. Inclusion criteria were: a) TKI treatment duration >3 years; b) sustained MR4.5 in >4 consecutive determinations (one single point in MR4 was acceptable) during >2 years; c) molecular monitoring in a reference laboratory expressing the results on the International Scale (IS). Patients who had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation were excluded. Molecular relapse was defined as consecutively detectable BCR-ABL1 transcripts showing a ≥1 log increase or loss of MMR in any single sample. Treatment-free remission (TFR) was estimated by the method of Kaplan-Meier and defined as the time from TKI discontinuation to the date of restarting therapy for any reason or, if treatment was not restarted, the date of last contact. Incidence of molecular relapse was calculated using the cumulative incidence function with resumption of TKI treatment in the absence of molecular relapse and death in MMR as competing events. Analysis of factors predicting molecular relapse was done by the method of Fine and Gray.
Results: Table 1 shows the main characteristics of the series. Median follow-up from treatment discontinuation was 21.5 months, and 5 patients died in MMR due to CML unrelated causes. TKI therapy was reinitiated due to molecular relapse (MMR loss: n=52, increase >1 log in BCR-ABL transcript level at two consecutive assessments without losing MMR: n=12), patient preference (n=2), and severe withdrawal syndrome (n=1). One additional patient lost MMR after 20 months from treatment cessation but decided not to be retreated, with spontaneous recovery of MMR. The probability of TFR at 4 years was 64% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 55%-72%)(Figure 1). The cumulative incidence of molecular recurrence was 33% (95% CI: 26%-38%) at 3 years (Figure 2). Forty-nine relapses (75% of total) occurred in the first 6 months. The latest MMR loss was detected 30 months after treatment stop. One patient restarted treatment 44 months after TKI discontinuation due to ≥1 log increase in BCR-ABL1 transcripts in two consecutive samples without losing MMR. In univariate analysis, duration of TKI treatment of less than 5 years (P=0.005) and time in RM4.5 shorter than 4 years before TKI discontinuation (P=0.003) were both significantly associated with a higher incidence of molecular recurrence.
No patient progressed to the advanced phases of CML. At the time of restarting treatment, the median BCR-ABL1 IS was 0.3%, with this value being >5% in only 7 instances. Most patients (81%) received the same TKI that they were taking before the trial of treatment cessation. Median follow-up after treatment resumption was 20 months. Among the 64 patients who restarted treatment due to molecular relapse, 46 of 52 cases regained MMR after a median time of 3 months, and 47 of 64 regained MR4.5 after a median time of 5 months. Response status at last control was: MR4.5 (n=196), MR4 (n=15), MMR (n=14), complete cytogenetic response (n=10), and other (n=1).
Fifty-one patients (22%) developed musculoskeletal or joint pain after treatment cessation. In patients stopping imatinib, a significant increase in Hb levels, leukocyte counts, total lymphocyte counts, platelet counts, and cholesterol levels was observed. At 6 months, an increase in Hb level >2 g/dL was observed in 47% of patients with anemia. By contrast, nilotinib discontinuation was not followed by any relevant change in laboratory values.
Conclusions: Our results confirm that treatment discontinuation is feasible and safe in clinical practice in Spain. Duration of TKI treatment of less than 5 years and a time in RM4.5 shorter than 4 years before TKI discontinuation were significantly associated with a higher incidence of molecular recurrence.
Disclosures: Hernandez Boluda: Incyte: Consultancy; Novartis: Consultancy. García Gutiérrez: Incyte: Honoraria, Research Funding; Pfizer: Honoraria, Research Funding; BMS: Honoraria, Research Funding; Novartis: Honoraria, Research Funding. Ferrer Marin: Incyte: Consultancy; Novartis: Consultancy, Research Funding. Cervantes: Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Novartis: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Hospital Clinic Barcelona: Employment.
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