Session: 634. Myeloproliferative Syndromes: Clinical: Novel Therapeutic Strategies
Methods: In an investigator-sponsored single-center study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01731951), imetelstat, a lipid-conjugated oligonucleotide inhibitor of human telomerase, was administered to patients with high or intermediate-2 risk MF (JCO 2011). Adverse events were monitored by common terminology criteria (Version 4.03) and responses by the International Working Group criteria (Blood 2013). Eligibility criteria included platelets ≥50 x 10(9)/L. Study drug and funding were provided by Geron Corporation (Menlo Park, CA, USA).
Imetelstat was administered by a 2-hour intravenous infusion (9.4 mg/kg) every three weeks (cohort A) or weekly x 3 followed by every three weeks (cohort B). Mutations with prognostic (ASXL1 and SRSF2) or phenotypic (SF3B1 and U2AF1) relevance were screened by DNA sequencing. Quantitative PCR was used to measure JAK2V617F burden (assay sensitivity 0.01%). Laboratory correlative studies included analyses of granulocyte telomere length, mononuclear cell telomerase activity and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) isoforms.
Results: Thirty-three patients were accrued; the first 18 patients enrolled and followed for a minimum of 3 months or discontinued are presented in this abstract: 11 cohort A and 7 cohort B; 44% PMF, 33% post-PV MF and 22% post-ET MF. Median age was 68 years and baseline risk was high in 56% and intermediate-2 in 44%. Seven patients were transfusion-dependent. Median spleen size was 13 cm and 11 patients had constitutional symptoms. Karyotype was abnormal in 7 patients and 89% were JAK2-mutated. Fifteen (83%) patients were previously treated including 7 with a JAK inhibitor and 3 with pomalidomide.
At a median f/u of 3.2 months, 16 (89%) patients remain on treatment; the two discontinuations were from unrelated death and disease progression. In cohort A, there were no grade-4 treatment-related adverse events; grade-3 events were limited to thrombocytopenia in 27% and anemia in 9%. In cohort B, two (29%) patients experienced grade-4 thrombocytopenia; grade-3 events were limited to thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and anemia in one patient each. Dose reduction was necessary in only two (11%) patients because of grade 3 or 4 myelosuppression.
Overall response rate was 44%. This included five (28%) patients who met the BM and peripheral blood morphologic criteria for CR (n=4) or PR (n=1) and 3 patients with clinical improvement, pending validation of response duration and resolution of drug-induced grade-1 thrombocytopenia. The four (22%) CR patients experienced reversal of BM fibrosis and recovery of normal megakaryocyte morphology. Two CR patients were transfusion-dependent at baseline and became transfusion-independent. Complete molecular responses were documented in 2 CR patients: one had U2AF1Q157P and 10% JAK2V617F and the other SF3B1K666E and 50% JAK2V617F. A third CR patient had a >50% reduction in U2AF1 469_insAGTATG mutation. Among 13 patients with leukocytosis, 10 (77%) normalized their count or had >50% reduction. Eleven (61%) patients had complete or partial resolution of leukoerythroblastosis.
iii) Laboratory correlative studies
Three (50%) of 6 spliceosome-mutated vs. 1 (8%) of 12 unmutated (p=0.045) achieved CR. Spliceosome-mutated patients were also more likely to experience grade-3/4 myelosuppression (67% vs. 25% ; p=0.09). Treatment was associated with suppression of telomerase activity, shortening of telomere length and alteration of hTERT isoform pattern.
Conclusions: The current study signifies the potential value of telomerase-based treatment strategies in MF and identifies imetelstat as an active drug in that regard. The observed morphologic and molecular remissions confirm selective anti-clonal activity, which has thus far eluded other drugs in MF, including JAK inhibitors. The association between response and spliceosome mutations suggests a broader application for the drug in myeloid malignancies.
Disclosures: Stuart: Geron: Consultancy.
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