Session: 722. Clinical Allogeneic Transplantation - Acute and Chronic GVHD, Immune Reconstitution: Novel Strategies for Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis and Treatment
The combination of a calcineurin inhibitor and methotrexate has been the standard of care in graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis for over 25 years, with resultant rates of grade II-IV acute GVHD between 30-50%. The mTOR inhibitor, sirolimus, has demonstrated promise in a number of Phase II trials as an immunosuppressant used for GVHD prophylaxis. The BMT CTN, sponsored by the NHLBI and NCI, conducted a multicenter, randomized controlled trial comparing the combination of tacrolimus and sirolimus (Tac/Sir) with tacrolimus and methotrexate (Tac/Mtx) as GVHD prophylaxis after matched, related donor (MRD) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
Methods: Eligible patients were between ages 2 - 60 years, and had acute leukemia in remission, myelodysplasia or chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic or accelerated phase. All had adequate organ function, and a 6/6 HLA-A, B, DRB1 matched sibling donor. 304 patients were randomly assigned to either Tac/Sir (n = 151) or Tac/Mtx (n = 153) as GVHD prophylaxis after TBI-based conditioning and MRD HSCT. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed on the primary endpoint of Grade II-IV GVHD-free survival 114 days from randomization. Ten subjects who received busulfan-based conditioning and were previously reported were excluded from analysis. Three subjects who did not undergo HSCT are included in the primary analysis, but not secondary analyses.
Results: Treatment groups were well balanced. The median age of participants was 44 years (range 13 - 59) and 83% had acute leukemia. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment were both faster in the Tac/Sir group (14 vs. 16 days, p < 0.001; 16 vs. 19 days, p = 0.03, respectively), but this did not affect the time to first hospital discharge (20 vs. 21 days, p = 0.37). The incidence of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD at 100 days were lower in the Tac/Sir group (26 vs. 34%, p = 0.17; 8 vs. 15%, p = 0.05). Day 100 treatment-related mortality was no different between groups (7 vs. 7%, p = 0.43). The primary endpoint of 114-day acute GVHD-free survival was not statistically different between groups (67 vs. 62%, p = 0.38, Figure). The cumulative incidence of relapse at 2 years from transplantation was not different between groups (27 vs. 30%, p = 0.81). The competing-risk cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was higher in the Tac/Sir arm (54 vs. 43%, p =0.044). Overall toxicities were not different between groups, with two notable exceptions. The peak and average OMAS oral mucositis scores were lower in the Tac/Sir arm (peak 0.70 vs. 0.96, p < 0.001; average 0.31 vs. 0.47, p < 0.001), however, there was an increased rate of the endothelial injury syndromes, veno-occlusive disease (11 vs. 4%, p = 0.03), and thrombotic microangiopathy (5 vs. 1%, p = 0.05) in the Tac/Sir arm. Causes of death were not different between groups. At 2 years from transplantation, disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were not different between study arms (DFS 53 vs. 53%, p = 0.76; OS 60 vs. 61%, p = 0.44).
Conclusions: No difference in 114-day acute GVHD-free survival was noted between treatment arms. Compared with Tac/Mtx in MRD HSCT, Tac/Sir is associated with more rapid engraftment, less severe acute GVHD and oral mucositis, excess chronic GVHD and endothelial injury syndromes, and similar long-term outcomes. Understanding the trade-offs between regimens, Tac/Sir can be used as an alternative to Tac/Mtx in MRD HSCT.
Disclosures: Cutler: Pfizer, inc: Research Funding; Astellas, Inc: Consultancy, Research Funding. Off Label Use: Sirolimus - Prevention of GVHD Tacrolimus - Prevention of GVHD. Waller: Outsuka: Research Funding.
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