Session: 321. Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Factors: Poster II
OBJECTIVE: 3-Hydroxyl-3-methyl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) inhibit the production of mevalonate and other isoprenoid intermediates of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, such as farnesylpyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (GGPP). Statins can protect the vasculature from inflammation and atherosclerosis caused by cholesterol-dependent and cholesterol-independent mechanisms. The latest investigations show that statins modulate the expression of genes related to inflammation, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in cultured endothelial cells. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) which is expressed by endothelial cells plays a crucial role in hemostasis by regulating TF-induced initiation of coagulation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of fluvastatin, lipophilic statin, on expressions of TFPI in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). METHODS: HUVECs were incubated for 24 h in culture medium including fluvastatin (0.1, 1.0, 10.0 µM). The expression of TFPI mRNA and protein was evaluated by western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. To identify which product of statin reaction is necessary for the effect of fluvastatin, HUVECs were incubated for 24h with fluvastatin with mavalonate, FPP, or GGPP. On the other hand, it is known that fluvastatin increase nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. To determine whether fluvastatin induced NO affects TFPI mRNA and protein expression, HUVECs were incubated for 24h with fluvastatin with NG-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, hydrochloride (L-NAME: specific inhibitor of NO synthase). Additionally, to determine whether fluvastatin affects p38MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways, HUVECs were incubated for 24h with fluvastatin with the inhibitors of p38MAPK (SB203580), JNK (SP600125), MEK (U0126), PI3K (LY294002), and PKC (GF109203). The expression of TFPI mRNA and protein was evaluated by western blot. RESULTS: Fluvastatin increased TFPI mRNA and protein expression (1µM: p<0.01, 10µM: p<0.05; Figure1). This fluvastatin-dependent up-regulation of TFPI was prevented by mevalonate and geranylgeranylphosphate (GG-PP). In contrast, the addition of L-NAME did not alter induction of TFPI expression by fluvastatin. Similarly, Y-27632 (Rho kinase inhibitor) and NSC23766 (Rac1 inhibitor) were ineffective. Additionally, the inhibitors of p38MAPK, PI3K, and PKC prevented fluvastatin-dependent up-regulation. On the other hand, the inhibitors of JNK and MEK were ineffective. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that fluvastatin significantly increases TFPI mRNA and protein expression, and this effect of fluvastatin is accompanied by the activation of p38 MAPK, PI3K, and PKC pathways. Therefore, this effect may play an important role in preventing cardiovascular events.
Figure 1 Effects of fluvastatin on TFPI protein (A) and mRNA (B) expression in HUVECs. The columns represent the mean ± SD (n=3) percentages of the control culture. *p<0.05 versus control. **p<0.01 versus control.
Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
See more of: Oral and Poster Abstracts
*signifies non-member of ASH