Disparities in health delivery may greatly affect outcomes for patients with hematologic diseases. Understanding these disparities is important both for improving health care and gaining insight into why there may be different outcomes among different populations. Types of disparities are numerous and may include disparities on the basis of race, socioeconomic status, geography, and age among other variables. This session will focus on three examples of health disparities in which differences in outcome are apparent and how a greater understanding of these disparities may lead to improved treatment results. Dr. Shabbir Alibhai will discuss differences in referral patterns and treatment for elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia. He will illustrate how such insights may be gained using administrative data and how these differences affect outcomes for this population. Dr. Allison King will explore the complicated issues that children with sickle cell disease face, including challenges with respect to access to care and socioeconomic status. She will illustrate how these factors affect cognitive status and other outcomes for these children. Dr. Scott Howard will discuss how disparities related to a country’s resources, and health care delivery in low income countries, affect outcomes for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. He will discuss how progress has been made in understanding reasons for treatment failure for these children and how improvements have occurred through international collaboration and research.